Children's English training: the cultivation of listening an
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Children's English training: the cultivation of listening and speaking ability
The training of children's listening and speaking ability in English training: listening is the basic form of human cognitive activities and the basic behavior of human expression of ideas. Listening and speaking ability is a basic skill that children must have in the process of learning English. We should take the flexible use of English language knowledge as the ultimate goal of English learning, set learning content close to life and in line with children's interests, constantly change teaching methods, actively advocate cooperative learning, and adopt multiple evaluation methods to evaluate the effect of students' English learning.
Like the acquisition of mother tongue, children's English learning starts from listening and speaking. Listening is the basic form of human cognitive activities. According to psycholinguistics, listening is the acceptance and understanding of oral information and a purposeful communicative behavior; listening is a process of active cognition plus T ^ of information and an intellectual cognitive activity of advanced nervous system; In the process of listening, the listener first perceives the words, sentences and utterances to form sound image, and then decodes the words, sentences and utterances to form memory according to the existing language learning experience. In short, the process of human listening is the process of absorbing information and processing information in the brain. If this process has a good start, it will greatly promote the improvement of their speaking, reading and writing abilities. It is the basic behavior of human expression of ideas, the oral output and expression of ideas, and the expression form of ideas in sound language after the external information is processed by the brain. If listening is input, then speaking is output. Therefore, the cultivation of children's good listening and speaking ability is of great significance to the development of their English ability.
1、 Learning theory of Constructivism
The first proponent of constructivism is Piaget of Switzerland, whose copy theory originates from the theory of children's cognitive development. Constructivists believe that knowledge is not acquired by teachers, but by learners in certain situations. With the help of others, using necessary learning materials, and through the way of meaning construction. "Situation", "cooperation", "conversation" and "meaning construction" are the four elements of constructivism.
According to constructivism learning theory, teachers are the helpers, tutors and promoters of knowledge meaning construction, not the providers and inculcators of knowledge; students are the subjects of learning information processing, the initiators of meaning construction, not the passive recipients and inculcated objects of knowledge; Teaching is to take learners' original knowledge and experience as the growth point of new knowledge, guide learners to grow new knowledge and experience from the original knowledge and experience, rather than ignore the existing knowledge and experience of learners, and implement knowledge "cramming" from the outside to learners; Learning is a cooperative learning process in which students and teachers use certain situations to process and transform knowledge. It is not a simple knowledge transfer process. Constructivism learning theory has brought a revolution to traditional teaching, which requires us to completely change the traditional view of teachers, students, teaching and learning.
2、 Characteristics of children's English listening and speaking learning
1. Children's English thinking is intuitive, concrete and vivid
Children learn intuitionistic English through expression and action. Their thinking is mainly concrete and image, and they gradually transition to abstract thinking. However, this kind of abstract logical thinking is still directly related to perceptual experience to a large extent. Children's perception of things around them is more general, their abstract thinking ability is not strong enough, their thinking mainly depends on the concrete image of things, representation and association of representation. This way of thinking makes it impossible for children's English listening and speaking learning to be separated from specific objects, actions and situations. Listening, speaking and learning of children's English is a process in which children take the initiative to accept some knowledge content that is easy to understand and learn. Instead of passively accepting the boring grammar knowledge. In terms of teaching methods and means, children are more accustomed to intuitive and visual teaching aids, especially in the context of mother tongue learning.
2. Children's attention and self-control are poor in the process of learning English listening and speaking
The form of children's attention to things is from unconscious attention to conscious attention. Although the process of excitation and inhibition of children's cerebral cortex has developed to a certain extent, compared with teenagers and adults, it is still relatively slow. They have a strange sense of English. In English class, their attention is usually not stable, not only easy to be distracted, but also not for a long time. If the time of the teacher's explanation is too long or the teaching content is lack of interest in class, they will do small actions, talk or do things that are often irrelevant to the class, and they will even appear tired or tired. It also reveals the weakness of children's poor self-control. In the actual teaching process, there are many factors that will affect the length of children's attention concentration time, such as whether teachers use some simple classroom language in the regular teaching process, whether the time arrangement of teaching activities is too long, whether teachers use flexible and diverse teaching methods and means, whether the presentation of teaching content uses colorful teaching aids, pictures or music, etc.
3. Children have strong mechanical memory, are good at imitation, and are full of curiosity about new and different things
Children's unconscious memory is better than conscious memory. They often can casually remember the words and sentence patterns that are vivid and interesting to them. Interesting, fresh, intuitive and vivid teaching aids can attract their most attention, and also make their memory of Related words or sentences more profound and lasting. In the process of English listening and speaking learning, children's imitation ability is much better than adults. They can easily distinguish the subtle differences in different voice and intonation from the teacher's demonstration. L! PJL children can achieve accurate pronunciation, pure intonation imitation, fluent oral expression, and they can unconsciously imitate in the language environment. Although children are still puzzled by many things and phenomena in the world, driven by curiosity, they are eager to understand and understand these new and novel things and phenomena. Curiosity about strange languages can also stimulate children's interest in learning English. In the process of English learning, their curiosity is constantly satisfied, which makes them more interested in English learning.
4. In English class, children have the characteristics of acting, playing and being active
In the development of children's nervous system, the development of excitation process is faster than that of inhibition process, which makes children show the characteristics of performance, play and action. They understand and know things in play from childhood, and integrate games with teaching, which can promote the smooth development of teaching process and improve the quality and effect of teaching. In addition, children are not afraid of saying wrong words or sentence patterns, they show great interest in participating in classroom teaching activities, and like to attract others' attention in the process of activities. This way of learning English in performances and games enables children's mouth, eyes, ears, limbs and brain to participate in it, and multiple sensory activities at the same time can strengthen memory. For this kind of learning, children are more willing to participate and show great enthusiasm, so as to improve children's interest in learning English and deepen their impression of the language.
5. In the process of English learning, children are very confident and dependent on Teachers
Children are used to relying on teachers in the process of English learning. They will do what teachers ask them to do. Without the guidance of teachers, they will have no idea what to do. Children have strong dependence on teachers. Usually, they do not make their own learning plans, arrange their learning contents, and make rational use of their spare time. However, children have great respect and trust for teachers and are willing to accept teachers' help and guidance. Moreover, children trust teachers more than their parents. Therefore, with the growth of children's age, teachers should consciously cultivate their independent learning ability and self-control ability.
3、 The cultivation of children's listening and speaking ability
Constructivism is conducive to the formation and development of children's cognitive structure. Therefore, the combination of constructivism learning theory and children's unique nature and the cultivation of children's listening and speaking ability can not only make up for many shortcomings of traditional teaching, but also make children learn more happily, which is conducive to their all-round development and healthy growth.
1. Make flexible use of English language knowledge the ultimate goal of students' English learning
Constructivism emphasizes that meaning construction is the ultimate goal of learning. At the stage of children's English listening and speaking learning, teachers should pay attention to cultivating students' interest in English learning, stimulating students' enthusiasm to learn English, helping them to build up their confidence in learning English, and creating conditions for children to learn and master basic knowledge of English. Through English listening and speaking learning, they can act, do things, play games, rap songs, understand simple English stories, express simple feelings and feelings, greet each other and exchange personal information in simple English, cultivate students' good sense of language, cultivate their initial communicative ability of using language, and promote their progress One step learning lays the foundation.
2. Set learning content close to life and in line with children's interests
Constructivism emphasizes that the teaching content should choose the real task. The choice of language materials and teaching activities in the teaching process should fully reflect the life familiar to children, such as dining, shopping, home, etc. The choice of teaching content should be able to arouse children's interest, such as poetry, songs, stories, etc. The language materials involved in teaching should be novel, real and practical, so as to leave a bright, vivid, vivid and deep impression on children. Teachers should consciously guide students to acquire perceptual knowledge through observation, comparison and analysis, and through repeated practice, let them truly realize the practical value of English, gain experience of communicating in English, and get happiness from it.
3. Create situations, create an atmosphere for English learning, and constantly change teaching methods
Constructivism emphasizes that students should complete learning tasks in real situations. The situation here refers to the situation and environment that are basically consistent with or similar to the basic content and reality of learning. Teachers should make full use of the language materials in teaching, create lifelike teaching situations for students, such as picnic, medical treatment, phone call, etc., integrate the stereotyped teaching into the rich and colorful real situation, and let every child have the opportunity to communicate in English. English teaching method is an effective means to achieve the purpose of English teaching. It can improve the quality of English teaching. Therefore, teachers should constantly adjust teaching methods, such as flexible use of the whole body response method, listening, situational teaching method, communication method, etc., to create a natural, relaxed and lively language learning environment for students, and constantly cause the response of students' multiple senses, eliminate their psychological pressure, so as to attract children's attention and reduce their boredom for a long time.
4. The classroom teaching is student-centered and actively advocates cooperative learning
Constructivism emphasizes that teaching should be student-centered, give full play to the main role of students, and pay attention to the cooperation between teachers and students in the learning process. After explaining the necessary knowledge points, teachers should try not to do further expansion alone. They should ask questions or provide clues to children in the way of inspiration, guidance and prompt in time, so that they can discuss, communicate and question each other, so as to understand each other's thinking. Finally, teachers should comment. In this way, in the process of continuous feedback of information, it can improve children's ability of divergent thinking and analysis, and promote their in-depth understanding of knowledge. This form of teaching provides children with a space of imagination, which is conducive to the development of their pioneering spirit.
5. Evaluate the learning effect of students in multiple ways
Constructivism emphasizes the diversity of evaluation. It holds that teaching evaluation should not only depend on students' mastery of knowledge or skills, but also examine students' learning ability, cooperation performance and behavior performance. Teachers should pay attention to the evaluation of children's language listening and speaking ability, voice level, learning interest, attitude, strategy, cooperation spirit and other factors that are not easy to quantify. The evaluation can adopt multiple evaluation methods such as student self-evaluation, student mutual evaluation, teacher evaluation and parent evaluation, which is conducive to stimulating children's interest in learning English, making them feel successful, and initially forming the use of English The ability to communicate in a simple, everyday way. At the same time, in the process of teaching, teachers should encourage and support children to carry out self-evaluation, so that evaluation really becomes their own needs.