At present, many Chinese teachers actively advocate the reform of Chinese teaching, but the reform can't be carried out properly, can't sacrifice the effectiveness of the classroom for the sake of the reform, and can't buy back the Pearl, in order to practice some so-called new ideas and reduce the effectiveness of the classroom.
In my opinion, at present, the main problem of some Chinese classes is that the teacher's explanation of the text object is too simple, superficial or vague, which seriously affects the effectiveness of Chinese teaching. Therefore, in teaching, teachers should stick to at least the three key words of "positioning", "close reading" and "association".
Find out the teaching orientation
Positioning, that is, on the basis of careful study of the text, to screen out the parts or links that students need teachers' help in reading a certain article, so as to make the learning objects clear and specific, so as to facilitate students' in-depth contact and perception. Positioning is a gradual process of concretization. Teachers should make a list of "teachable points" or "knowledge" of a text before class.
The following is an example of Lu Xun's "blessing" lesson to illustrate the content of the "knowledge list": analysis of the main characters' personalities, such as Xianglinsao, "I" and the construction significance of the minor characters in the novel. The narrative perspective of the novel, especially the use of multiple perspectives. The use of descriptive methods, specifically involves the description of expression, language, psychology and the combination of the virtual and the real. The logical language and the intensive use of Related words make the novel present a distinctive language style. Analysis of natural environment, such as the meaning of "Snow" in the text; analysis of social environment, such as the significance of the study to the fourth master of Lu, the role of the people of Lu town to Sister Xianglin. What is the special meaning and function of the two words "blessing" in the title of the novel? Wait.
When these "teachable points" are made clear, the learning objects will become clear and specific, and the guidance of students' deep contact and perception of the text will be guaranteed. Of course, the definiteness of learning objects is relative. For example, there are many secondary characters in blessing, old lady Wei, Aunt Liu and aunt Si are all secondary characters, but they play different roles in the text. If there is time in the teaching, further detailed analysis can be made. The teacher can not only guide the students to carry out comparative analysis in the class with good learning situation, but also select one or two characters in the text for individual appreciation and horizontal connection in the class with weak student foundation, so as to make the problems clear, which is conducive to the students to understand the characters in the novel more thoroughly.
It is necessary to read the text carefully
In recent years, the intensive reading of the text has not decreased, mainly reflected in the blowout presentation of theoretical research results and practical results. In fact, close reading has long been the foundation of the charm of Chinese classroom. In the first few years of entering the Chinese platform, I watched the classroom records of famous teachers such as Yu Yi and Qian Menglong. One of the most distinctive impression is that the wonderful classroom should be based on the close reading of the text. And the Chinese course that is praised by students is mostly text intensive reading course.
An earlier example can also be cited. Liang Shiqiu, a famous writer, once recalled Liang Qichao's wonderful Chinese class. He recorded the scene of the class in the article "a speech by Mr. Liang rengong": "I remember that he started with an ancient poem" konghou quotation ": there is no crossing the river. Crossing the river! Cross the river and die! These four sixteen words, once read by him and explained by him, vividly draw a tragedy... " Mr. Liang Qichao talks about ancient poetry, and pays special attention to close reading. More than ten words of ancient poetry can give students the feeling of "a tragedy", and the artistic conception depicted is rooted in students' mind, which is unforgettable for life.
In my opinion, in the current Chinese classroom, we should not give up the magic weapon of "close reading". Here is an example of a seemingly ordinary poem in the pipa line. Let's take a look at the effect of "close reading".
"I'd like to invite you to meet me when I move the boat. I'll add wine and go back to the light to start the banquet again." There are a series of continuous actions in these two poems, such as "moving (boat)", "approaching (phase)", "inviting (meeting)", "adding (wine)", "returning (lamp)", "Opening Banquet", etc. The continuity of the action expresses the consciousness of the character's behavior. The action is a natural action from the heart. From this we can see the enthusiasm of the subject and the guest, and the pipa sound touches the subject and the guest greatly. If we look at the context, there is a huge contrast with "no orchestral string for drinking" and "no happiness for drinking", which enlightens the readers that they have a special love for music. This is a sharp contrast with the poem "come out after a long call, still hold the pipa half covered the face", which is like fire and wind and fire on the one hand, and like water on the other hand. Deep down, there is a suspense - why are the two sides so different? After reading, it will be clear. This can be regarded as the first footnote to the sentiment of "Why have we met before". In other words, where is the expression of "Why have we met"? Among them, the first is to invite people to meet each other near the ship, add wine and return to the lamp to start the banquet again.
In this way, language understanding, poem appreciation and thinking training will be integrated and become a natural thing. Only by reading carefully, can we realize the description and appreciation of the relevant actions in the poems and sentences; only by reading carefully, can we help students really digest the knowledge they have learned.
"Association" promotes drawing inferences from one instance
The importance of "association" in teaching is inspired by Qi Jun, a Taiwanese essayist. When I first read her "tears and pearls", I was very impressed. Therefore, I also understand that association in class can promote students' learning to become a natural thing. Let's take a look at Qijun's words:
Once, I read Xie Bingxin's prose and enjoyed "green mountains after rain, like conscience washed by tears". I think her metaphor is really fresh and fresh. I remember that the Chinese teacher also specially explained: "the green mountains after the rain are colorful and figurative, but the conscience is intangible and invisible. The intelligent author compares the abstract conscience with the concrete green mountains, which is really wonderful." As soon as the teacher wakes up, we try our best to find examples of concrete and abstract contrast in poetry, which is very interesting, and we also feel that there is more understanding in the description of composition.
I especially appreciate the last sentence of this passage. It has been used in my Chinese class for many years to explain the way of comparing concrete sentences with abstract ones.
If we think about the relationship between scenery and emotion, we can see that Wanshan is popular All kinds of frost and sky compete for freedom ", you can feel the beauty of containing, touching and blending feelings and scenes. Similarly, from the poem of "stone breaking through the sky, waves crashing on the bank, rolling up thousands of piles of snow", we can feel the vivid representation of this typical relationship between scenery and emotion again. If the students have gained the ability to appreciate these famous sentences in the classroom under the guidance of the teachers, then when they read Wang Anshi's guizhixiang Jinling nostalgia, they will practice "a thousand miles like a river It's hard to draw a picture, so you can quickly feel the charm of the relationship between scenery and emotion.
When studying the speech in front of Marx's tomb, we should guide students to find out the sentences that have a leading role, such as "the death of this man is an immeasurable loss for the proletariat fighting in Europe and the United States, and for Historical Science..." "I love to be lively and calm; I love to live in groups and I love to be alone..." Then we can encourage them to "draw gourds in the same way", look for "general sentences" in articles such as "records of Xiang Jixuan", "trivial memories" and "autumn in the old capital", and point out the role of these sentences in the construction of the article.
This kind of association is actually a kind of effective connection and expansion, which can make the articles or works of different styles, styles or even different countries related. To a certain extent, this kind of connection will naturally lead to the cultivation of students' reading ability; after falling in love with reading, students' reading will naturally expand, which will have a positive role in promoting their learning.