The individual guidance of children's painting should be appropriate
In kindergarten art teaching activities, it is very important for children's learning and development that teachers provide appropriate individual guidance for children's creation. At present, teachers show a variety of misunderstandings in the work of individual guidance, weakening the effectiveness of individual guidance. This shows that teachers can not accurately grasp their own role in the guidance, lack of guidance or too much intervention to children, and even deviation in the value orientation of art. These guiding errors need to be adjusted.
Myth 1: free creation, dare not guide
In the large class painting activity titled "interesting stories in kindergarten", a young child looks at the white paper in front of him and does not start to write. The teacher noticed his performance and asked, "what do you want to draw?" The child is silent and keeps away from the teacher's eyes. The second time, the teacher bent down and saw that the child had not drawn it, he asked again, "have you thought about it? The teacher is willing to accompany you. Do you have anything you want to do? " The child bowed his head and said nothing. Then the teacher said, "can you think about it again?" "OK." The child answered in a low voice. The third time, the teacher came up and asked, "are you ready?" The child retracted his arm near the teacher's side. The teacher looked at him helplessly and said, "think again, come on." Then turn around and leave.
Obviously, teachers notice that children encounter difficulties in their conception, but only through the strategies of inquiry and emotional encouragement to guide children, there is no real educational effect. In painting activities, there may be two situations in which children do not write, one is not willing to draw, the other is not knowing what to draw, that is, emotion and life experience affect children's conception. Emotion is not only the emotional connection between children and teachers, but also the emotional resonance of children caused by the theme itself. Life experience refers to children's life experience and image storage related to creative themes, which can support children's image representation and imagination processing. In this case, the teacher's repeated inquiries only focus on the results of children's conception, and fail to understand the specific difficulties children encounter in the process of conception.
In fact, teachers can discuss with children on the basis of painting theme and give children substantial support to help children conceive. Teachers can inspire children's ideas through conversation. For example, teachers can ask questions: "what interesting things have we had in kindergarten?" Or, teachers invite children to discuss with their peers interesting things in kindergarten to arouse their existing life experience.
When children determine the theme of painting, teachers should help children think about how to express the theme, that is, how to draw. Teachers can inspire children's thinking from modeling, color setting, composition and other aspects. Do you remember where it is? What was the season then? " "How did the teacher and the children play?"
Error 2: empty guiding language, simple encouragement for children to create
In the art activity, the teacher inspects each group, and the child raises his hand and asks the teacher, "teacher, how to draw the ice cream machine?" The teacher said gently, "you can create one by yourself and be a small inventor." The child scratched his head and thought as he said, "I've seen a place for fruit on the iPad before. Um... There's also a place to squeeze out the ice cream. " "Then create one yourself, and be a little designer." The teacher replied. Children look up at the teacher to ask what, the teacher has stood up to go to other children.
The teachers in the case only encourage children to create and invent, but they don't really understand the connotation of children's creativity, and don't know the conditions that children's creative behavior should have. Children's creativity has two distinct characteristics: one is based on children's existing experience and re combination of materials; the other is novel and valuable works for children's individual. Teachers don't realize that the real difficulty for children is how to draw the ice cream machine they have seen on paper. Teachers do not give children any support and support. It is obviously very difficult for children to grow up from scratch.
Therefore, teachers' guidance to children's creativity should be based on children's experience. The first is to understand the situation of children's visual acquisition. In the above cases, children ask "how to draw an ice cream machine". Teachers can guide children to review their past experience: "have you seen an ice cream machine? What is it like? " Then, guide children to transform the visual image. Teachers can search with mobile phones and use pictures to supplement children's experience. Then he asked the child with the picture: "where is the ice cream squeezed from the machine? Can you point it to me?" At this time, the purpose of the support provided by the teacher is to let the children determine what kind of modeling is used to express the perceptual image and what color is used to express their perceptual feelings. Finally, the creation and expression of children.
It should be noted that teachers' encouragement should be concrete and meaningful, such as "you can try to change the ice cream machine to make it more useful and functional", rather than such empty and frequent encouragement as "being an inventor" and "being a little designer".
Error 3: over focus on skills and over guidance
The teacher said, "just now I reminded the five senses to be complete. What do you think is the difference between the five senses?" The child thought and answered, "no feet." "I said the five senses. What didn't they draw?" The child looked at the teacher in disbelief. The teacher then said, "did you draw ears? When you look at your painting, you always forget that the teacher just reminded you that painting should be complete. " Children are required to draw their ears. The teacher said, "can you draw some hair for the children?" The child shook his head. "This is the teacher." The teacher pointed to the picture of the child: "the teacher can also draw hair." The child raises the pen and adds hair to the character as required. The teacher looked at the children next to him and said, "pay attention to drawing double lines on the little arm when drawing people. The children who draw the side only draw one eye. "
Obviously, teachers pay too much attention to the skill level of children in painting, and the teaching method adopted is not appropriate. In art guidance, we will inevitably face the relationship between the development of skills and creativity. The development of skills and creativity is not contradictory. The reason why skills hinder children's creative development is that adults pay too much attention to the skill level and improper teaching methods in the process of teaching children's skills.
In order to avoid paying too much attention to children's painting skills, first of all, the model law should be used correctly. Teachers can use the model law, but they should pay attention to its enlightenment, that is to let children master the use method on the basis of their own thinking. Moreover, the demonstration of teachers is only the key and difficult point, not the whole process of skill mastering. For example, in the above case, the teacher can demonstrate how to draw hair and ears, and then let the children observe their own demonstration process. Ask the children to compare with the figures they draw, instead of instilling skills into the children mechanically and directly, the latter will not promote their development.
Secondly, teachers can help children master the shape of objects through a series of activities. A series of activities can help children learn to describe different modeling features of objects from different perspectives, so that children can express the shapes of objects according to the needs of the plot. For example, through a series of activities, such as "people in the side", "children in motion", "people in the distance and near", "people who are blocked", "what are the five features", to learn the description and creation of characters.